Web pages#

This chapter explores a variety of ways to embed standalone Bokeh documents and Bokeh applications into web pages. First, here’s how standalone documents differ from applications:

Standalone documents

These documents don’t require a Bokeh server to work. They may have many tools and interactions such as custom JavaScript callbacks but are otherwise nothing but HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. These documents can be embedded into other HTML pages as one large document or as a set of sub-components with individual templating.

Bokeh applications

These applications require a Bokeh server to work. Having a Bokeh server lets you connect events and tools to real-time Python callbacks that execute on the server. For more information about creating and running Bokeh apps, see Bokeh server.

Standalone documents#

This section describes different ways to publish and embed standalone Bokeh documents.

HTML files#

Bokeh can generate complete HTML pages for Bokeh documents using the file_html() function. This function can create an HTML document from its own generic template or from a template you provide. These HTML files contain plot data and are fully portable while still providing interactive tools (pan, zoom, etc.) for your plot. Here is an example:

from bokeh.plotting import figure
from bokeh.resources import CDN
from bokeh.embed import file_html

plot = figure()
plot.circle([1,2], [3,4])

html = file_html(plot, CDN, "my plot")

You can save the returned HTML text to a file using standard Python file operations. You can also provide your own template for the HTML output and pass in custom, or additional, template variables. For more details, see the file_html() documentation.

This is a low-level, explicit way to generate an HTML file, which can be useful for web applications such as Flask apps.

In scripts and Jupyter notebooks employing the bokeh.plotting interface, you can call the output_file() function in conjunction with show() or save() instead. The show() function creates an HTML document and displays it in a web browser whereas save() creates an HTML document and saves it locally.

JSON items#

Bokeh can also supply JSON data that BokehJS can use to render a standalone Bokeh document in a specified <div>. The json_item() function accepts a Bokeh model (for example, a plot) and an optional ID of the target <div>.

p = figure()
p.circle(x, y)

item_text = json.dumps(json_item(p, "myplot"))

The embed_item() function can then use this output on a web page:

item = JSON.parse(item_text);

This renders the plot in the <div> with the ID “myplot”.

You can also omit the target ID when calling json_item():

p = figure()
p.circle(x, y)

item_text = json.dumps(json_item(p)) # no target ID given

You can then specify the ID in JavaScript:

item = JSON.parse(item_text);
Bokeh.embed.embed_item(item, "myplot");

Here’s a more complete example of a Flask app serving Bokeh JSON items from a /plot endpoint:

def plot():
    p = make_plot('petal_width', 'petal_length')
    return json.dumps(json_item(p, "myplot"))

This produces JavaScript code that looks either like this:

    .then(function(response) { return response.json() })
    .then(function(item) { return Bokeh.embed.embed_item(item) })

Or, with modern syntax, like this:

const response = await fetch('/plot')
const item = await response.json()

For a complete example, see examples/output/apis/json_item.py.


You can also have Bokeh return individual components of a standalone document to embed them one by one with the components() function. This function returns a <script> that contains the data for your plot and provides a target <div> to display the plot view. You can use these elements in HTML documents however you like.

from bokeh.plotting import figure
from bokeh.embed import components

plot = figure()
plot.circle([1,2], [3,4])

script, div = components(plot)

The returned <script> will look something like this:

<script type="text/javascript">
    (function() {
  const fn = function() {
    Bokeh.safely(function() {
      const docs_json = { DOCUMENT DATA HERE };
      const render_items = [{

      Bokeh.embed.embed_items(docs_json, render_items);
  if (document.readyState != "loading") fn();
  else document.addEventListener("DOMContentLoaded", fn);


Note that Jupyter notebooks do not allow for use of the components() and show() functions in the same notebook cell.

The docs_json contains all the data as well as plot or widget objects (omitted here for brevity). The resulting <div> looks something like this:

<div id="9574d123-9332-4b5f-96cc-6323bef37f40"></div>

You can insert or template this script and its companion <div> in an HTML document and, when the script executes, your plot replaces the <div>.

For this to work, you first need to load BokehJS, either locally or from a content delivery network (CDN). To load BokehJS from a CDN, add the following lines to your HTML document or template with the appropriate version replacing the x.y.z:

<script src="https://cdn.bokeh.org/bokeh/release/bokeh-x.y.z.min.js"
<script src="https://cdn.bokeh.org/bokeh/release/bokeh-widgets-x.y.z.min.js"
<script src="https://cdn.bokeh.org/bokeh/release/bokeh-tables-x.y.z.min.js"
<script src="https://cdn.bokeh.org/bokeh/release/bokeh-gl-x.y.z.min.js"
<script src="https://cdn.bokeh.org/bokeh/release/bokeh-mathjax-x.y.z.min.js"

Only the Bokeh core library bokeh-x.y.z.min.js is always required. The other scripts are optional and only need to be included if you want to use corresponding features:

  • The "bokeh-widgets" files are only necessary if you are using any of the Bokeh widgets.

  • The "bokeh-tables" files are only necessary if you are using Bokeh’s data tables.

  • The "bokeh-gl" files are required to enable WebGL support.

  • the "bokeh-mathjax" files are required to enable MathJax support.

For example, to use version 3.0.0 with support for widgets, tables, and math text, include the following in your HTML:

<script src="https://cdn.bokeh.org/bokeh/release/bokeh-3.0.0.min.js"
<script src="https://cdn.bokeh.org/bokeh/release/bokeh-widgets-3.0.0.min.js"
<script src="https://cdn.bokeh.org/bokeh/release/bokeh-tables-3.0.0.min.js"
<script src="https://cdn.bokeh.org/bokeh/release/bokeh-gl-3.0.0.min.js"
<script src="https://cdn.bokeh.org/bokeh/release/bokeh-mathjax-3.0.0.min.js"


Always provide the closing </script> tag. This is required by all browsers and the page will typically not render without it. You should also always include the crossorigin="anonymous" attribute on the script tag.

If you would like to include Subresource Integrity (SRI) hashes in your explicit script tags by setting the integrity attribute, the necessary hashes can be obtained by calling get_sri_hashes_for_version(). Here’s an example:

In [1]: import bokeh.resources

In [2]: bokeh.resources.get_sri_hashes_for_version("2.2.0")
{'bokeh-2.2.0.js': 'TQAjsk2/lDn1NHjYoe8HIascd3/Cw4EWdk6GNtYXVVyAiUkbEZiuP7fEgbSwM37Y',


'bokeh-widgets-2.2.0.min.js': '2ltAd1cQhavmLeBEZXGgnna8fjbw+FjvDq9m2dig4+8KVS8JcYFUQaALvLT//qHE'}

These are bare hashes, and you have to prefix them with sha384- to use. For example:

<script src="https://cdn.bokeh.org/bokeh/release/bokeh-2.2.0.min.js"

You can produce SRI hashes only for full release versions, not for dev builds or release candidates.

In addition to a single Bokeh model, such as a plot, the components() function can also accept a list or tuple of models or a dictionary of keys and models. Each returns a tuple with one script and a corresponding data structure for the target <div> elements.

The following illustrates how different input types correlate to outputs:

#=> (script, plot_div)

components((plot_1, plot_2))
#=> (script, (plot_1_div, plot_2_div))

components({"Plot 1": plot_1, "Plot 2": plot_2})
#=> (script, {"Plot 1": plot_1_div, "Plot 2": plot_2_div})

Here’s an example of how you could use a multiple plot generator:

# scatter.py

from bokeh.plotting import figure
from bokeh.models import Range1d
from bokeh.embed import components

# create some data
x1 = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]
y1 = [0, 8, 2, 4, 6, 9, 5, 6, 25, 28, 4, 7]
x2 = [2, 5, 7, 15, 18, 19, 25, 28, 9, 10, 4]
y2 = [2, 4, 6, 9, 15, 18, 0, 8, 2, 25, 28]
x3 = [0, 1, 0, 8, 2, 4, 6, 9, 7, 8, 9]
y3 = [0, 8, 4, 6, 9, 15, 18, 19, 19, 25, 28]

# select the tools you want

# the red and blue graphs share this data range
xr1 = Range1d(start=0, end=30)
yr1 = Range1d(start=0, end=30)

# only the green graph uses this data range
xr2 = Range1d(start=0, end=30)
yr2 = Range1d(start=0, end=30)

# build the figures
p1 = figure(x_range=xr1, y_range=yr1, tools=TOOLS, width=300, height=300)
p1.scatter(x1, y1, size=12, color="red", alpha=0.5)

p2 = figure(x_range=xr1, y_range=yr1, tools=TOOLS, width=300, height=300)
p2.scatter(x2, y2, size=12, color="blue", alpha=0.5)

p3 = figure(x_range=xr2, y_range=yr2, tools=TOOLS, width=300, height=300)
p3.scatter(x3, y3, size=12, color="green", alpha=0.5)

# plots can be a single Bokeh model, a list/tuple, or even a dictionary
plots = {'Red': p1, 'Blue': p2, 'Green': p3}

script, div = components(plots)

Running python scatter.py prints out the following:

<script type="text/javascript">
    const docs_json = { DOCUMENT DATA HERE }
    const render_items = [{

    Bokeh.embed.embed_items(docs_json, render_items);

        'Green': '\n<div id="e89297cf-a2dc-4edd-8993-e16f0ca6af04"></div>',
        'Blue': '\n<div id="eeb9a417-02a1-47e3-ab82-221abe8a1644"></div>',
        'Red': '\n<div id="c311f123-368f-43ba-88b6-4e3ecd9aed94"></div>'

You can then insert the resulting script and <div> elements into a boilerplate such as the following:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
        <meta charset="utf-8">
        <title>Bokeh Scatter Plots</title>

        <script src="https://cdn.bokeh.org/bokeh/release/bokeh-2.2.0.min.js"></script>

        <!-- COPY/PASTE SCRIPT HERE -->

        <!-- INSERT DIVS HERE -->

Note that this doesn’t include JavaScript and CSS files for "-widgets" because the document doesn’t use any Bokeh widgets.

You can see an example of multiple plot generation by executing the following:

python /bokeh/examples/embed/embed_multiple.py

Autoloading scripts#

You can also embed standalone documents with the autoload_static() function. This function provides a <script> tag that replaces itself with a Bokeh plot. This script also checks for BokehJS and loads it if necessary. This function lets you embed a plot with nothing but this <script> tag.

This function takes a Bokeh model, such as a plot, that you want to display, a Resources object, and a path to load a script from. Then autoload_static() returns a self-contained <script> tag and a block of JavaScript code. The JavaScript code saves to the path you provide and the <script> loads and runs it to display your plot on a web page.

Here is how you might use autoload_static() with a simple plot:

from bokeh.resources import CDN
from bokeh.plotting import figure
from bokeh.embed import autoload_static

plot = figure()
plot.circle([1,2], [3,4])

js, tag = autoload_static(plot, CDN, "some/path")

The resulting <script> tag looks like this:


Include this tag anywhere you want your plot to display on an HTML page.

Save the JavaScript code to a file at “some/path” on the server where the document containing the plot can reach it.


The <script> tag replaces itself with a <div>, so it must be placed within the <body> of the document.

Bokeh applications#

This section describes how to embed entire Bokeh server applications. You can embed Bokeh apps so that every page load either creates and displays a new session and document or outputs a specific, existing session.

App documents#

If an application is running on a Bokeh server that makes it available at some URL, you will typically want to embed the entire application in a web page. This way, the page will create a new session and display it to the user every time it loads.

You can achieve this with the server_document() function. This function accepts the URL to a Bokeh server application and returns a script that embeds a new session from that server every time the script executes.

Here is an example of the server_document() function in use:

from bokeh.embed import server_document
script = server_document("https://demo.bokeh.org/sliders")

This returns a <script> tag that looks something like this:


You can add this tag to an HTML page to include the Bokeh application at that point.

App sessions#

Sometimes, instead of loading a new session, you might wish to load a specific one.

Take a Flask app that renders a page for an authenticated user. You might want it to pull a new session, make some customizations for that specific user, and serve this customized Bokeh server session.

You can accomplish this with the server_session() function. This function accepts a specific model to embed (or None for an entire session document), session ID, and a URL to the Bokeh application.

Here is an example of how to use server_session() with Flask:

from flask import Flask, render_template

from bokeh.client import pull_session
from bokeh.embed import server_session

app = Flask(__name__)

@app.route('/', methods=['GET'])
def bkapp_page():

    # pull a new session from a running Bokeh server
    with pull_session(url="http://localhost:5006/sliders") as session:

        # update or customize that session
        session.document.roots[0].children[1].title.text = "Special sliders for a specific user!"

        # generate a script to load the customized session
        script = server_session(session_id=session.id, url='http://localhost:5006/sliders')

        # use the script in the rendered page
        return render_template("embed.html", script=script, template="Flask")

if __name__ == '__main__':

Standard template#

Bokeh also provides a standard Jinja template that helps you quickly and flexibly embed different document roots by extending the “base” template. This is especially useful when you need to embed individual components of a Bokeh app in a non-Bokeh layout, such as Bootstrap.

Here’s a minimal example for an application that creates two roots with name properties set:

p1 = figure(..., name="scatter")

p2 = figure(..., name="line")


You can then refer to these roots by their names and pass them to the embed macro to place them in any part of the template:

{% extends base %}

<!-- goes in head -->
{% block preamble %}
<link href="app/static/css/custom.min.css" rel="stylesheet">
{% endblock %}

<!-- goes in body -->
{% block contents %}
<div> {{ embed(roots.scatter) }} </div>
<div> {{ embed(roots.line) }} </div>
{% endblock %}

Here’s a full template with all the sections that you can override:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
{% block head %}
{% block inner_head %}
    <meta charset="utf-8">
    <title>{% block title %}{{ title | e if title else "Bokeh Plot" }}{% endblock %}</title>
{%  block preamble -%}{%- endblock %}
{%  block resources -%}
{%   block css_resources -%}
    {{- bokeh_css if bokeh_css }}
{%-  endblock css_resources %}
{%   block js_resources -%}
    {{  bokeh_js if bokeh_js }}
{%-  endblock js_resources %}
{%  endblock resources %}
{%  block postamble %}{% endblock %}
{% endblock inner_head %}
{% endblock head%}
{% block body %}
{%  block inner_body %}
{%    block contents %}
{%      for doc in docs %}
{{        embed(doc) if doc.elementid }}
{%-       for root in doc.roots %}
{%          block root scoped %}
{{            embed(root) }}
{%          endblock %}
{%        endfor %}
{%      endfor %}
{%    endblock contents %}
{{ plot_script | indent(4) }}
{%  endblock inner_body %}
{% endblock body%}